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Theoretical Yield Calculator

Enter the values of the limiting reagent and desired product of the given reaction to calculate its theoretical yield.

Limiting Reagent

g / mol

Desired Product

g / mol

Theoretical Yield Calculator

Use this theoretical yield calculator to find the maximum amount of product that can be formed from a given chemical reaction. It can also calculate the limiting reagent and the stoichiometric ratio between the moles of reactants and the product formed.

What Is Theoretical Yield?

In chemistry, theoretical yield is said to be the maximum quantity of product that can be produced in a chemical reaction. However, theoretical yield can be obtained under perfect conditions, these conditions indicate where no product is lost in the process, which means:

• No impurities mixed in the reactants
• No production of unexpected products that can reduce the yield
• There is no loss of product because of any measurement, processing, and handling of reactants or products

Theoretical Yield Formula:

Theoretical Yield = Molecular Weight of Product x Limiting Reagent Moles x Stoichiometry of Product

The number of moles in the limiting reagent is calculated as:

Moles In The Limiting Reagent = Mass of Limiting Reagent Moleuclar Weight of Limiting Reagent x Stoichiometry of The Limiting Reagent

The numbers in front of each ingredient in a chemical reaction are the reactant's stoichiometry. If no number is found, then the stoichiometry is said to be 1. Keep in mind that stoichiometry is the thing that is needed to reflect the ratios of molecules that come together to form a product.

How To Calculate Theoretical Yield?

For theoretical yield calculation, follow these steps:

• Balance the Chemical Equation
• Recognize The Limiting Reactant
• Determine The Moles of Limiting Reagent
• Use The Theoretical Yield Equation

Example:

In a combustion reaction, 44 grams of propane (C₃H₈) reacts with 128 grams of oxygen (O₂). Calculate the theoretical yield of carbon dioxide (CO₂).

Step #1: Balance Both Sides of The Chemical Equation:

Ensure that the number of atoms of all elements is the same on both sides of the equation.

Unbalanced equation:

C₃H₈ + 3O₂ → 2CO₂ + 4H₂O

Balanced Equation:

C₃H₈ + 5O₂ → 3CO₂ + 4H₂O

Step #2: Recognize The Limiting Reactant

Convert the given masses into moles:

Molar mass of C₃H₈ = 3 x 12 (for C) + 8 x 1 (for H) = 44 g/mol

Molar mass of O₂ = 32 g/mol

Molar mass of CO₂ = 44 g/mol

Moles of C₃H₈ = 44 g 44 g/mol

Moles of C₃H₈ = 1

Moles of O₂ = 128 g 32 g/mol

Moles of O₂ = 4

Determine Mole Ratio:

From the balanced equation, the mole ratio of C₃H₈ to O₂ is 1:4.

Compare Mole Ratios:

You have 1 mole of C₃H₈ and 4 moles of O₂.

Step #3: Find The Moles of Limiting Reagent

Now, you have:

• 1 mole of C₃H₈
• 4 moles of O₂

Since 1 mole of C₃H₈ requires 5 moles of O₂ but you only have 4 moles of O₂, O₂ is the limiting reagent.

Step #4: Put Values In The Theoretical Yield Formula

Theoretical yield of CO₂ = 3 moles CO₂ x 44 g/mol = 132 grams CO₂

To calculate the stoichiometry of product, relate moles of reactant to moles of product:

Stoichiometry of Product = 1:5::3:4

Stoichiometry of Product = 1/5 = 3/4

Stoichiometry of Product = 3.75

Summary:

• Stoichiometry of Product = 3.75
• Limiting Reagent Moles = 4
• Theoretical Yield = 132 grams

You can easily simplify these stoichiometry calculations by using the theoretical yield calculator and make an informed decision to optimize the chemical process.

FAQ’s:

Why Is It Important To Calculate Theoretical Yield?

Calculating theoretical yield is important for various reasons, including:

• Reaction Optimization: Helps to recognize the area for improvement by comparing the actual and theoretical yield
• Resource Management: Minimize the waste by providing the maximum product yield
• Estimating the Cost: At the industrial level, it helps to estimate the cost of the final product
• Maintaining Product Quality: Determines the amount of reactant required to form the quality product
Understanding The Mechanisms of Reactions: Finding theoretical yield provides insight into chemical processes and side reaction

What's The Difference Between Theoretical Yield And Actual Yield?

• Theoretical Yield: The predicted amount of product that can be formed in a chemical reaction based on stoichiometric calculations
• Actual Yield: The actual quantity of the product produced in a chemical reaction

The actual yield is always lower than the theoretical yield because of the happening of side reactions and the occurrence of impurities.

What Is The Ratio of The Actual Yield To The Theoretical Yield Multiplied By 100?

Percent yield

References:

From a chem.libretexts – All about chemistry - Excess reagent, limiting reagent – Theoretical Yield.

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