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Descartes' Rule of Signs Calculator

Descartes' Rule of Signs Calculator

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This calculator uses Descartes' sign rules to determine all possible positive and negative zeros of any polynomial provided.

Enter a Polynomial:

Variable:

If you are not satisfied with the results and calculations displayed by this calculator, let us know how we could improve it in the feedback.

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The Descartes’ rule of signs calculator implements the Descartes Rules to determine the number of positive, negative and imaginary roots. By Descartes’ rule, we can predict accurately how many positive and negative real roots in a polynomial.
This can be quite helpful when you deal with a high power polynomial as it can take time to find all the possible roots. You can confirm the answer by the Descartes’ rule and the number of potential positive or negative real and imaginary roots.

Descartes Rule of Signs?

We use the Descartes rule of Signs to determine the number of possible roots:

  • Positive real roots
  • Negative real roots
  • Imaginary roots

Consider the following polynomial:
3×7 + 4×6 + x5 + 2×4 – x3 + 9×2 + x + 1
Let’s find all the possible roots of the above polynomial:

First Evaluate all the possible positive roots by the Descartes’ rule:

ƒ(x) = 3×7 + 4×6 + x5 + 2×4 – x3 + 9×2 + x + 1

It is easy to figure out all the coefficient of the above polynomial:

The coefficient are, 3,4,1,2,-1,9,1,1

Spot all the sign changes:

  • The Sign changes from + 2 to – 1
  • The Sign changes from  – 1 to + 9

We noticed there are two  times the sign changes, so we have only two positive roots.The Positive roots can be figured easily if we are using the positive real zeros calculator.
Let’s move and find out all the possible negative roots:

For negative roots, we find the function f(-x) of the above polynomial

 ƒ(-x) = +3(-x7) + 4(-x6) + (-x5) + 2(-x4) – (-x3) + 9(-x2)+(-x) + 1 

The Signs of the ƒ(-x) changes and we have the following values:
ƒ(-x) = -3×7+ 4×6 -x5 + 2×4 +x3 + 9×2 -x +1
The coefficient of ƒ(-x) = -3, 4, -1, 2, 1,-1, 1

Notice there are following five sign changes occur:

  • Sign Changes from  -3 to +4
  • Sign Changes from +4 to -1
  • Sign Changes from -1 to +2
  • Sign Changes from +1 to -1
  • Sign Changes from -1 to +1

There are 5 real negative roots for the polynomial, and we can figure out all the possible negative roots by the Descartes’ rule of signs calculator. 

Descartes Rule of Signs Table:

We can draw the Descartes Rule table to finger out all the possible root:

The coefficient of the polynomial are: 1, -2, -1,+2

  • Two sign changes occur from 1 to -2, and -1 to +2, and we are adding “2” positive roots for the above polynomial. We need to add “Zero” or positive Zero along the positive roots in the table.

Find

ƒ(-x)= -x^3 -2x^2 +x – 2

The coefficient of the polynomial are: -1, -2, 1,+2

  • One change occur from -2 to 1, it means we have only one negative possible root:

The following results are displayed in the table below and added imaginary roots, when real roots are not possible:

Possibility

Positive roots  Negative roots Imaginary roots  Total roots
1 2 1 0 3
2 0 1 2

3

Check the Set of Possibilities:

There are two set of possibilities, we check which possibility is possible:

Let’s see:

ƒ(x) = x^3 – 2x^2 – x + 2

We have 

x^2(x-2)-1(x-2)

(x^2-1)(x-2)

Compare it with Zero:

(x-1)(x+1)(x-2)=0

x-1=0 , x+1=0 , x-2=0

Then 

x=1, x=-1, x=2

It means the first possibility is correct and we have two possible positive and one negative root,so the possibility “1” is correct. The Descartes’ rule of signs calculator is making it possible to find all the possible positive and negative roots in a matter of seconds.

Working of the Descartes’ Rule of Signs Calculator:

The Descartes rule calculator implements Descartes rule to find all the possible positive and negative roots. This is one of the most efficient way to find all the possible roots of polynomial:

Input:

  • Enter the polynomial
  • Hit the calculate button

Output:

It can be easy to find the possible roots of any polynomial by the descartes rule:

  • Positive and negative roots number is displayed
  • All the steps of Descartes rule of signs represented

FAQs:

Why do we use  Descartes’ rule of signs?

It is the most efficient way to find all the possible roots of any polynomial.We can implement the  Descartes’ rule of signs by the freeonine descartes’ rule of signs calculator.

How can we find the number of roots?

Consider a quadratic equation ax2​+bx+c=0, to find the roots, we need to find the discriminant( (b2​-4ac). We can find the discriminant by the free online discriminant calculator.

Then there are three possibility:

  • Discriminant <0, then the roots have no real roots
  • Discriminant >0, then the roots have real roots
  • Discriminant =0, then the roots are equal and real

We can also use the descartes rule calculator to find the nature of roots by the Descartes’ rule of signs.

What are 4th roots called?

The fourth root is called biquadratic as we use the word quadratic for the power of “2”.

What is meant by the real root?

The meaning of the real roots is that these are expressed by the real number. There are no imaginary numbers 𝜾 involved in the real numbers.

Why do we make a Descartes rule of signs table?

We draw the  Descartes rule of signs table to find all the possible roots including the real and imaginary roots.

Can there be only imaginary roots of a polynomial?

Yes there can be only imaginary roots of a polynomial, if the discriminant <0.

Conclusion:

The descartes’ rule of signs is one of the easiest ways to find all the possible positive and negative roots of a polynomial. It can be easy to find the nature of the roots by the Descartes’ Rule of signs calculator. You may find it difficult to implement the rule but when you are using the free online calculator you only need to enter the polynomial.

References:

From the source of the Mathplanet :Descartes’ rule of sign,Example

From the source of the Britannica.com : Descartes’s rule of signs, multinomial theorem